Basic Facts About Gray Wolves

Average length Male: 5-6.5 feet (nose to tip of tail)
Female: 4.5 to 6 feet
Average height 26 to 32 inches
Average weight Male: 80-110 lbs.
Female: 60-80 lbs.
Average paw size 4 inches wide by 5 inches long
Longevity 5-9 year average in the wild
14-15 years in captivity
Pelage Any shade of gray, brown, black, white, or tawny; rust (a single litter can contain a variation of colors)
Number of teeth 42
Breeding season Mid-January to Mid-April (depending on climate-the colder the climate, the later the breeding season)
Gestation Period 63 days on average
Weight at birth 1 pound on average
Litter size 4-6 pups on average
Pup mortality rate Highly variable, but approximately 40-60% per year
Pack size 6-8 members on average
Pack territory/ size 10-100 square miles per animal
Speed 6 miles on average but can reach speeds of 43 mph during a chase
Common prey Caribou, elk, deer, bison, musk-oxen, sheep, goats. Also will prey on rodents, beavers, fish, and birds. Basically whatever is available when ungulate are scarce.
Wolf to deer ratio One wolf to a population of 50-200 deer
Life span: Roughly 6 – 10 years in the wild. They can live up to 18 years in captivity.
Threats Loss of habitat due to destruction, development and encroachment by humans, persecution by humans.